End Notes

[1] “Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: MPCP Facts and Figures for 2001-2002,” Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, accessed April 2002.

[2] Letter from State Sen. Russ Decker’s office, transmitted to People For the American Way by e-mail on April 17, 2002.

[3] A Painful Price: How the Milwaukee Voucher Surcharge Undercuts Wisconsin’s Education Priorities, a report by People For the American Way Foundation, February 14, 2002, accessed April 2002.

[4] Voucher school tuition data were collected from the Empowering Parents for Informed Choices in Education web site, Public Policy Forum, and the schools themselves. Information on state voucher expenditures is taken from audited reports by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.

[5] Letter from State Sen. Russ Decker’s office, transmitted to People For the American Way by e-mail on April 17, 2002

[6] ibid.

[7] “An Evaluation: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program,” Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau, February 2000, p. 26.

[8] Empowering Parents for Informed Choices in Education (EPIC) Harambee school page, accessed April 2002.

[9] Empowering Parents for Informed Choices in Education (EPIC) Gospel Lutheran page, accessed April 2002.

[10] Empowering Parents for Informed Choices in Education (EPIC) Blessed Sacrament page, accessed April 2002.

[11] Felicia Thomas-Lynn, “100 Parents Try to Hold Vote at Harambee School,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, February 26, 2002; accessed February 2002.

[12] Lynn Olson and Debra Viadero, “Law Mandates Scientific Base for Research,” Education Week, January 30, 2002; accessed April 2002.

[13] ibid.

[14] “SAGE Facts,” Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2001; accessed April 2002. (Note: Schools that elect to participate in SAGE must reduce class sizes for all students throughout the grade, not simply in those classes with low-income students since to do otherwise would result in economic segregation of students; SAGE therefore has a multiplier effect, helping all students at that grade level.)

[15] Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, “1998-99 Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program Evaluation,” Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 1999; Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, “1999-2000 Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program,” Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 2000.

[16] “Burmaster: SAGE Bridges Achievement Gap,” Education Forum, a publication of the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 2002, Vol. 5, No. 20; accessed April 2002.

[17] David Grissmer, Ann Flanagan, Jennifer Kawata and Stephanie Williamson, Improving Student Achievement: What State NAEP Test Scores Tell Us, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000, p. xxv.

[18] Debra Viadero, “Tennessee Class-size Study Finds Long-term Benefits,” Education Week, May 5, 1999; “Benefits of Small Classes Pay Off at Graduation,” Project STAR News, Lebanon, TN: Health and Education Research Operative Services (HEROS), Inc., April 1999.

[19] A report by the pro-voucher Wisconsin Policy Research Institute (WPRI) contended that there is no SAGE impact on student achievement beyond first grade and sought to link this claim to what it argued were similar limitations in the results from the Tennessee STAR experiment. Charles M. Achilles, STAR Principal Investigator, has pointed out that the WPRI report ignored many important publications on STAR from the last several years and, instead, relied on the work of Erik Hanushek and his now widely-criticized methods to make the argument that class size reduction is not a cost-effective intervention. By doing so, WPRI discounted the overwhelming evidence that for students who spend three or four years in smaller classes the positive benefits on student achievement and educational outcomes are both immediate and long-lasting. See Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, “The costs and benefits of smaller classes in Wisconsin: A further evaluation of the SAGE program,” Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report, vol. 13, no. 6, September 2000; Charles M. Achilles, “A review of ‘The costs and benefits of smaller classes in Wisconsin,'” Education Policy Project, Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, September, 2000.

[20] “2001-2003 Budget Reform Bill: Comparative Summary of Budget Recommendations, Assembly and Senate,” Legislative Fiscal Bureau, State of Wisconsin, April 12, 2002, p. 13.

[21] U.S. Department of Education, Class-Size Reduction: Myths and Realities, accessed April 2002.

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