1. Linda Greenhouse, "Win the Debate, Not Just the Case," The New York Times, July 14, 2002.
2. James P. Pinkerton, "Competition Can Lead to Better Education," Newsday, June 28, 2002, p. A-41.
3. Greenhouse, July 14, 2002.
4. Brief of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as amici curiae in support of respondents, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, pp. 13-14.
5. "An Evaluation: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau, February 2000, p. 26.
6. From "The Real School Choice," Oct. 8, 2000 column by Robert Chase, president of National Education Association.
7. Justice Souter's dissent from Zelman v. Simmons-Harris et al., decided by the U.S. Supreme Court on June 27, 2002.
8. Chief Justice Warren, writing for the court in Brown v. Board of Education, 347 US 483 (1954)
9. Cleveland data is from: Amy Hanauer, "Cleveland School Vouchers: Where the Students Go," Policy Matters Ohio, January 2002; Diana Jean Schemo, "Study Finds Church Schools Racially Segregated," The New York Times, June 27, 2002.
10. Brief of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as amici curiae in support of respondents, Zelman v. Simmons-Harris, pp. 7, 9.
11. Marianne Jennings, "Vouchers Could Boost the Quality of Education," guest column from the Web site of Accuracy in Media, posted June 24, 2002.
12. Radley Balko, "Separate But Equal in Washington, D.C.," Fox News, commentary posted July 18, 2002.
13. Five Years And Counting: A Closer Look at the Cleveland Voucher Program, People For the American Way Foundation, September 2002.
14. Mark Walsh, "Friedman Disappointed That Voucher Plans Aren't Bolder," Education Week, Dec. 12, 2001. (In the article, Friedman stated, "A program for the poor will be a poor program.")
15. Joseph Bast, "2002: The Year of School Vouchers," The Monthly Heartlander, February 2002.
16. William Rusher, "The ABC's of Tuition Vouchers," The Washington Times, March 14, 2002.
17. "Chronology of the DeRolph case," The Ohio Coalition for Equity & Adequacy of School Funding, updated as of December 2001.
18. Five Years and Counting: A Closer Look at the Cleveland Voucher Program, People For the American Way Foundation, September 2001, p. 2.
19. "The Cleveland Voucher Program: Who Chooses? Who Gets Chosen? Who Pays?" A Report by the American Federation of Teachers, 1997, p. ii.
20. Doug Oplinger and Dennis J. Willard, "Vouchers Costing Ohio," Akron Beacon Journal, March 27, 1998. Part of the Akron Beacon Journal investigative series "Whose Choice?" by the two authors.
21. A Painful Price: How the Milwaukee Voucher Surcharge Undercuts Wisconsin's Education Priorities, People For the American Way Foundation, February 14, 2002, p.4.
22. Sam Schulhofer-Wohl, "Health Costs a Threat to MPS Budget," Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 29, 2002.
23. "A Quiz on School Funding in Wisconsin," accessed January 2002. Data in the Web publication were obtained from General Accounting Office study entitled School Facilities: America's Schools Report Differing Conditions, June 1996. (According to the GAO study, 33 percent of Wisconsin schools needed total replacement or extensive repair, and 49 percent needed extensive repair of at least one major building feature, such as a roof.)
24. Wisconsin Education Association Council and Institute for Wisconsin's Future, "Are School Revenue Limits Limiting Learning?," January 2001, p. 11.
25. "Schools or Loopholes?" St. Petersburg Times, editorial, March 1, 2002.
26. Fred Grimm, "E Is for Education, F Is for Florida," Miami Herald, May 5, 2002.
27. In Milwaukee, many of the students utilizing vouchers for the first time had previously been receiving private vouchers through the Bradley Foundation-funded PAVE program. In the 1998-99 year, for example, 60 percent of Milwaukee voucher students had attended private schools before entering the voucher program. Similar patterns have been observed in Cleveland. A September 2001 analysis by Policy Matters Ohio found that nearly eight out of 10 voucher students during the 2000-2001 school year either were already enrolled in private schools or had never attended Cleveland public schools. (See: )
28. According to Milwaukee public schools data, there were approximately 160 schools in the 1999-2000 school year. During the same school year, there were 1,934 students in the Milwaukee voucher program who had been enrolled at one of the city's public schools the prior year, according to State of Wisconsin's Department of Public Instruction. Based on this data, an average of only 12 students per school left the Milwaukee public schools to accept vouchers-a figure that repudiates the claim that vouchers lower the operating costs of public schools. (Source: "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program: Milwaukee Parental School Choice Facts and Figures for 1999-2000," accessed Feb. 24, 2000.)
29. "Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program: Final Management Study," prepared by KPMG LLP, Sept. 9, 1999, p. 9-5.
30. Mary Ann Zehr, "Effect of Vouchers on Achievement Unclear, GAO Says," Education Week, October 10, 2001.
31. Kim Metcalf, "Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship Program, 1998-2000: Technical Report." Bloomington IN: Indiana Center for Evaluation, Indiana University, September 2001.
32. Debra Viadero, "Voucher Plans Test Data Yield Puzzling Trends," Education Week, Feb. 27, 2002.
34. "Statement by President George W. Bush," P.R. Newswire, June 27, 2002, 1:47 p.m. (EDT).
35. Martin Carnoy, "Do School Vouchers Improve Student Performance?," Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute, 2001.
36. False Claims about the Threat of Vouchers and School Improvement in Florida, People for the American Way Foundation, April 2001.
37. Jay P. Greene, "The Texas School Miracle Is for Real," City Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, Summer 2000.
38. Data is from a study by the Council of Great City Schools, as reported by Robert C. Johnston, "Test Scores Up in Urban Districts, Report Says," Education Week, May 30, 2001.
39. Tamara Henry, "Questions About the School Voucher System: What Ruling Means to You," USA Today, June 28, 2002, p. 6A.
40. Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1999-2000 Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program," Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 2000; Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1998-99 Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program Evaluation," Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Dec. 1999.
41. Mosteller quote is from "Research on the Academic Effects of Small Class Size," Class Size and Students At Risk: What is Known?...What is Next? U.S. Department of Education, April 1998; accessed May 2002.
42. Punishing Success: The Governor's Proposed Education Budget in Wisconsin and the SAGE and Voucher Programs, a report by People For the American Way Foundation, April 2001, p. 3.
43. ibid, p. 2.
44. Zach Schiller, "Cleveland School Vouchers: Where the Students Come From," September 2001; available on the web via:
45. Caitlin Scott, "Better District Schools Lose Students to Vouchers," Catalyst Cleveland, December 2001/January 2002, p. 18-19; published by Catalyst for Cleveland Schools.
46. ibid, p. 19.
48. Drew Lindsey, "Wisconsin, Ohio Back Vouchers for Religious Schools," Education Week, July 12, 1995.
49. The Gallup Organization interviewed 1,020 adults during June 21-23, 2002. The poll was sponsored by USA Today and CNN, and was reported in the June 28 edition of USA Today. Margin of error is +/-3%.
50. "Attitudes and Understanding Toward Education Vouchers and Tax Credits: Summary Analysis of Four Focus Groups," June 2002, Belden Russonello & Stewart, Washington, D.C. (Note: The firm's analysis stated that "support (for vouchers) drops with direct references to 'taxes' or 'public' funding expenses.")
51. The Gallup Organization interviewed 1,108 adults during May 23-June 6, 2001. The poll was sponsored by Phi Delta Kappan. Click here for information on interview procedures and sampling errors.
53. Zogby International interviewed 1,211 adults and oversampled African-American voters during May 23-30, 2001. The poll was sponsored by the National School Boards Association. Margin of error is +/- 3% for overall sample, +/- 5.7% for African-Americans.
54. The Teachers' Insurance Plan National Education Survey was conducted by Opinion Research Corp., which interviewed 1,046 adults by telephone during May 3-6, 2001. Margin of error is +/- 3%.
55. The survey was conducted by Public Opinion Strategies of Alexandria, Va. Interviews were conducted June 20-30, 2002 among 1,000 African-American registered voters. The margin of error was +/-3.1%.
56. California data is from Los Angeles Times poll, which interviewed 3,474 voters at 51 precincts. Margin of error is +/- 3%. Michigan data is from a CBS exit poll, which interviewed 1,213 voters in the state.
57. Data is from Research Brief, Public Policy Forum, Jan. 23, 2002, Vol. 90, No. 1, p. 1.
58. Based on available data for the 2001-2002 school year, there were 14,119 Milwaukee students who attended either public charter schools or suburban public schools via the Chapter 220 program versus 10,131 students who participated in the Milwaukee voucher program-meaning that nearly 40 percent more students were choosing public school options over vouchers. Last school year, approximately 9,800 students enrolled at one of 23 Milwaukee charter schools. Last school year, there were 4,319 Milwaukee students who received transfers via Chapter 220 to attend suburban public schools. (Sources: Research Brief, Public Policy Forum, Jan. 23, 2002, Vol. 90, No. 1, p. 1; Catherine Gewertz, "Dayton Feels the Heat from Charter Schools," Education Week, April 24, 2002; Telephone conversation with James McIntosh of Wisconsin's Department of Public Instruction, July 12, 2002)
59. Barbara Miner, "Who's Vouching for Vouchers?" The Nation, June 5, 2000, p. 24.
60. Research Brief, Public Policy Forum, Dec. 22, 2000, Vol. 88, No. 15, p. 1.