Fact Sheets: The Truth About Vouchers

Endnotes

  1. Bob Davis, "Class Warfare: Dueling Professors Have Milwaukee Dazed Over School Vouchers," Wall Street Journal, October 11, 1996, p. A1.
  2. Just as the public provision of K - 12 education has many goals, so should any evaluation of schooling investigate a variety of outcomes. In addition to student achievement in certain academic subjects, voucher research should also look at a variety of other factors including, but not limited to: rates of student persistence, repetition and dropout, indicators of discipline and behavioral problems, differences in curriculum and extracurricular offerings, experiences of students with special needs, impact on voucher students of attending sectarian schools, impact on community and state support for public schools, cost-effectiveness of various models for schooling, long term effects on civic participation, and financial impact on parents due to additional costs incurred for tuition, fees, transportation, extracurricular activities, etc. Voucher studies to date, however, have not evaluated this range of subjects.
  3. John Witte, et al., Fourth Year Report: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 1994, p. 2.
  4. Witte, Fifth Year Report: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, Madison, WI: Robert M. La Follette Institute of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995, p. 2.
  5. ibid.
  6. Witte, Fifth Year Report, p. 10.
  7. Witte, Fourth Year Report, p. 2; John Witte, et. al., Fifth Year Report, p. 4; Correspondence to the office of Senator Ted Kennedy on Greene, Peterson and Du: The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee, from Peter Cookson, Jr., Ph.D., Director, Center for Educational Outreach and Innovation, Teachers College, Columbia University, August 23, 1996.
  8. Jay Greene, Paul Peterson, and Jiangtao Du, The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the Program's Evaluation, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1996, p. 3.
  9. Henry M. Levin , "Educational Vouchers: Effectiveness, Choice and Costs," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 17, no. 3, 373-392, p. 377; Cookson, correspondence.
  10. Cookson correspondence.
  11. John Witte, "Reply to Greene, Peterson and Du: The effectiveness of school choice in Milwaukee: A secondary analysis of data from the program's evaluation, August 23, 1996.
  12. "The real lesson of Milwaukee's voucher experiment," Education Week, August 6, 1997. Bob Davis, "Class Warfare: Dueling professors have Milwaukee dazed over school vouchers," Wall Street Journal, October 11, 1996, pp. 1ff.
  13. Alex Molnar and Walter C. Farrell, Jr., "The 'Harvard' Study and the Politics of Private School Choice," p. 4.
  14. John F. Witte, "Reply to Greene, Peterson and Du: "The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the Program's Evaluation,", August 23, 1996, p. ii.
  15. Cecilia Elena Rouse, "Private school vouchers and student achievement: An evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 113, no. 2, pp. 553ff., May 1998.
  16. Cecilia Elena Rouse, "Schools and Student Achievement: More Evidence from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Economic Policy Review, v. 4, no. 1, March 1998; "Private school vouchers and student achievement: An evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 113, no. 2, pp. 553ff., May 1998.
  17. Alex Molnar, Smaller Classes and Educational Vouchers: A Research Update, Keystone Research Center, 1999, pp. 37-38. Alan B. Krueger & Diane M. Whitmore, "Would smaller classes help close the black-white achievement gap?" Paper presented at Brookings Institute - Edison Schools, Inc. conference "Closing the gap: Promising approaches to reducing the achievement gap," January, 2001.
  18. Alex Molnar & Charles Achilles, "Voucher and class-size research," Education Week, Oct 25, 2000; William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson, and David E. Campbell, "In defense of our voucher research," Education Week, February 7, 2001.
  19. "An Evaluation: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," State of Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau, Report 00-2, February 2000, cover letter.
  20. Kim K. Metcalf, "Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Grant Program 1996-1999," Bloomington, IN: The Indiana Center for Evaluation, Indiana University, 1999, pp. 14-16. Two types of analysis were used. In one, in which students' background characteristics and academic achievement prior to entering the voucher program were taken into account, there was no improvement for voucher students in established private schools in reading, math or social studies, while there were measurable gains in language arts and science. In the second analysis, when classroom characteristics (class size, teacher experience and education level) were also taken into account, there were no statistically significant differences in reading, math, social studies, language or the overall scores. Voucher students did score better in science, by 2.2 percentile points (38.3 versus 36.1).
  21. ibid. Voucher students attending newly established private schools had lower scores in all five subjects and overall in both analyses (with and without classroom characteristics).
  22. Jay Greene, William Howell and Paul Peterson, New Findings from the Cleveland Scholarship Program: A Reanalysis of Data from the Indiana University School of Education Evaluation, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Taubman Center on State and Local Government and John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1998, p. 1.
  23. Legislative Office of Education Oversight, "Memo to the members of the Legislative Committee on Education Oversight, RE: Evaluation of Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program, July 23, 1998; "Voucher Study Shows no Big Academic Gain," Cleveland Plain Dealer, March 28, 1998.
  24. Jay Greene, William Howell and Paul Peterson, New Findings from the Cleveland Scholarship Program: A Reanalysis of Data from the Indiana University School of Education Evaluation, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Taubman Center on State and Local Government and John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1998, pp. 4-5.
  25. Kim Metcalf , "Advocacy in the Guise of Science," Education Week, September 23, 1998.
  26. ibid.
  27. Legislative Office of Education Oversight, "Memo to the members of the Legislative Committee on Education Oversight, RE: Evaluation of Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program, July 23, 1998.
  28. William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson & David E. Campbell, "Test-Score Effects of School Vouchers in Dayton, Ohio, New York City, and Washington, D. C.: Evidence from Randomized Field Trials," Paper prepared for the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D. C., September 2000. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Taubman Center on State and Local Government and John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2000, available at http://data.fas.harvard.edu/pepg/, accessed August 28, 2000.
  29. ibid., p.3.
  30. Edward Wyatt, "Study Finds Higher Test Scores Among Blacks With Vouchers," New York Times, August 29, 2000.
  31. Martin Carnoy, Do school vouchers improve student performance? Washington, D.C: Economic Policy Institute, 2001.
  32. William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson, and David E. Campbell, "In defense of our voucher research," Education Week, February 7, 2001.
  33. "Voucher Claims of Success Are Premature in New York City Second-Year Results Show No Overall Differences in Test Scores Between Those Who Were Offered Vouchers and Those Who Were, " Press release, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. September 15, 2000. Available at: http://www.mathematica.org/Press%20Releases/voucherrelfinal.htm, accessed September 15, 2000.
  34. Carnoy, 2001. As with the New York data, these grade-by-grade results for Dayton were not released at the time of the Peterson report, but were shared only later by one of the authors, William Howell, with Carnoy.
  35. William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson & David E. Campbell, "Test-Score Effects of School Vouchers in Dayton, Ohio, New York City, and Washington, D. C.: Evidence from Randomized Field Trials," Paper prepared for the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D. C., September 2000. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Taubman Center on State and Local Government and John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2000, available at http://data.fas.harvard.edu/pepg/, accessed August 28, 2000, p.24)
  36. See Carnoy 2001, p.33, for further discussion.
  37. Jay P. Greene, "An Evaluation of the Florida A-Plus Accountability and School Choice Program," New York: Manhattan Institute, February, 2001. Under Florida's A+ Plan, passed in 1999, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), which had been in use for several years, became the basis of a system whereby schools are graded 'A' through 'F', and students at schools receiving an 'F' grade any two years out of four become eligible for transfer to better-performing public schools or for vouchers to use at participating private schools.
  38. Gregory Camilli and Katrina Bulkley, "Critique of 'An Evaluation of the Florida A­Plus Accountability and School Choice Program,'" Education Policy Analysis Archives, v. 9, no. 7, March 4, 2001, available at http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v9n7/, accessed March 9, 2001.
  39. See, for example, Stephen Hegarty, "Why Are Florida Children Writing So Much Better?" St. Petersburg Times, June 21, 2000.
  40. Haggai Kupermintz, "The Effects of Vouchers on School Improvement: Another Look at the Florida Data," Education Policy Analysis Archives, v. 9, no. 8, March 19, 2001, available at http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v9n8/, accessed March 22, 2001.
  41. "Superintendent: Tests show children at voucher schools improving," Associated Press State and Local Wire, (Dateline: Tallahassee) April 25, 2000; Jodi Wilgoren, "Florida's vouchers a spur to 2 schools left behind," New York Times, March 14, 2000; Jenny LaCoste, "Schools face new year of F-list stress," Pensacola News Journal, June 21, 2000.
  42. Carnoy, 2001, pp. 25ff.
  43. Doug Harris, "What caused the effects of the Florida A+ program: Ratings or vouchers?" in Carnoy, 2001, p.40.
  44. Carnoy, 2001, p.27; Amanda Brownson, "A replication of Jay Greene's voucher effect study using Texas performance data," in Carnoy, 2001, p. 46.
  45. Jay P. Greene, "The Texas School Miracle Is for Real," City Journal, v. 10, no. 3, Summer 2000.
  46. Helen F. Ladd & Elizabeth J. Glennie, "A replication of Jay Greene's voucher effect study using North Carolina data," in Carnoy, 2001, p. 49.
  47. Ladd & Glennie, 2001, p. 52. Carnoy points out (p. 29) that none of these studies were able to isolate the effect of state accountability systems. We cannot, he writes, necessarily attribute the increase in test scores in these states to the fact that they have rigorous accountability systems, just as there is no basis for claiming that the rising scores in Florida were due to the threat of vouchers.
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