Fact Sheets: The Truth About Vouchers

Endnotes

  1. "Educational Vouchers: Effectiveness, Choice and Costs," Henry M. Levin, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 17, No. 3, 373-392 (1998), p. 387.
  2. "Educational Vouchers: Effectiveness, Choice and Costs," p. 383.
  3. Joseph Claude Harris, cited in "The Cleveland Voucher Program: Who Chooses? Who Gets Chosen? Who Pays?" A Report by the American Federation of Teachers, 1997, p. 18.
  4. See Egen, Holmes and Mincberg, The Forty Percent Surcharge: How Taxpayers Overpay for Milwaukee's Private School Voucher Program, People For the American Way Foundation, August 2000 for a full explanation of the Milwaukee voucher program's funding formula surcharge.
  5. "Educational Vouchers: Effectiveness, Choice and Costs," p. 383; "Vouchers Costing Ohio," Akron Beacon Journal, 3/27/98 p. 2.
  6. "What Really Matters in American Education," White Paper prepared for U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley, for speech at the National Press Club, Washington D.C., September 23, 1997, U.S. Department of Education, p. 2. Secretary Riley derives this number from multiplying the average private school tuition of $3,116 in 1993-94 by private school enrollment (5 million).
  7. 2001-03 Wisconsin State Budget. Summary of Governor's Budget Recommendations. Legislative Fiscal Bureau, March 2001, p. 544.
  8. "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program: Membership and Payment History, in Total, 1990 to Present." Department of Public Instruction (DPI), as of May 2001; "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) MPCP Facts and Figures for 2000-2001." Department of Public Instruction as of May 2001, available at the DPI Web site; 2001-03 Wisconsin State Budget. Summary of Governor's Budget Recommendations. Legislative Fiscal Bureau, March 2001, p. 544 (2001-02 projections).
  9. "An Evaluation: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau, February 2000, p.p. 21, 24. "State budget highlights," Wisconsin Education Association Council, July 27, 2001. Available at the WEAC Web site, (accessed July 27, 2001).
  10. Funding is the lesser of per pupil expenditure or a maximum voucher determined each year. The maximum voucher for the 2000-01 year is $5,326; see "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) MPCP Facts and Figures for 2000-2001." Department of Public Instruction as of May 2001.
  11. See Egen, Holmes and Mincberg, The Forty Percent Surcharge: How Taxpayers Overpay for Milwaukee's Private School Voucher Program, People For the American Way Foundation, August 2000 for a full discussion of the Milwaukee voucher program's funding formula surcharge.
  12. The current budgeted 2001-02 school year cost for the voucher program is $58.4 million, according to the Legislative Fiscal Bureau (2001-03 Wisconsin State Budget Summary of Governor's Budget Recommendations, Legislative Fiscal Bureau, March, 2001, p. 544). Forty percent of this figure exceeds $23 million; this surcharge totals over $50 million for the biennium, based on total two-year costs budgeted by LFB at $127 million.
  13. The Financial Information Reports are audits done by an independent auditor that each voucher school submits on an annual basis to the Department of Public Instruction in order for the DPI to determine how much to pay the school. Revenue is broken down by source-for example, revenue from tuition, government assistance, investment income, contributions, etc. Actual average per-student tuition for a given school can be found by dividing the number of tuition-paying students into the total revenue received from tuition. This figure is often lower than the tuition reported to the Legislative Audit bureau (found in Appendix I of the LAB Audit). The cause of the discrepancy may be due to a variety of reasons, such as school scholarships, in-kind payment by parents through volunteer work, unofficial tuition reductions, etc.
  14. For an in-depth discussion about the discrepancies between actual and reported tuition, see Nelson, Egen and Holmes, "Revenues, Expenditures and Taxpayer Subsidies in Milwaukee's Public Schools," Paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Education Finance Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 2001.
  15. For a detailed explanation of the capital funding loophole, see Nelson, Egen and Holmes, "Revenues, Expenditures and Taxpayer Subsidies in Milwaukee's Public Schools," Paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Education Finance Association, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 2001. School level enrollment data from Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
  16. State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, School Finance and Management Services: "Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) MPCP Facts and Figures for 2000-2001." as of May 2001; "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program (MPSCP): MPSCP Facts and Figures for 1999-2000" as of March 16, 2000; "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program: Milwaukee Parental School Choice Facts and Figures for 1998-99" as of November 1998. Data available at the DPI website
  17. For the 1999-2000 year, over 50 percent of the students had attended private schools with voucher aid the year before. This is due primarily due to the fact that the voucher program was expanded in that year to include religious schools. Many of the students utilizing vouchers for the first time had previously been receiving private vouchers through the Bradley Foundation-funded PAVE program. State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, School Finance and Management Services: "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program: Milwaukee Parental School Choice Facts and Figures for 1998-99" as of November 9, 1998.
  18. According to MPS, there were approximately 160 schools in the 1999-2000 school year; 1,934 students enrolled in the voucher program this year came from MPS last year, according to State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, School Finance and Management Services: "Milwaukee Parental School Choice Program: Milwaukee Parental School Choice Facts and Figures for 1999-2000" (as of February 24, 2000).
  19. Ohio State Budget bill HB 94, 124th General Assembly, as signed by the Governor available online at the Ohio State Legislature Web site . Disadvantaged Pupil Impact Aid distribution for Cleveland voucher program.
  20. Ohio Stat. §3317.029 back to text
    "Vouchers Costing Ohio," Akron Beacon Journal, March 27, 1998. back to text
    "State Aid to Private Schools Up: Public Districts Feel Slighted," Cincinnati Enquirer, 3/29/98.
  21. "Voucher system falls far short of goals," Akron Beacon Journal, December 14, 1999; "State Aid to Private Schools Up: Public Districts Feel Slighted," Cincinnati Enquirer, March 29, 1998.
  22. "Charter Schools Seek Boost," Akron Beacon Journal, April 5, 2001.
  23. "Voucher system falls far short of goals," Akron Beacon Journal, December 14, 1999.
  24. "Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program: Final Management Study," Prepared by KPMG LLP, September 9, 1999, p. 9-2; "The Cleveland Voucher Program: Who Chooses? Who Gets Chosen? Who Pays?" A Report by the American Federation of Teachers, 1997, p.p. i-iii.
  25. "Vouchers Costing Ohio," Akron Beacon Journal, March 27, 1998, p. 3.
  26. "State Aid to Private Schools Up: Public Districts Feel Slighted," Cincinnati Enquirer, March, 29, 1998, pp. 3-4.
  27. "Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program: Final Management Study," Prepared by KPMG LLP, September 9, 1999, p. 9-15.
  28. Enrollment data and district per pupil expenditure averages for the 82 potential voucher schools were calculated from the "Florida School Indicators Report 1999-2000" CD-ROM, Bureau of Education Information and Accountability Services, Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee FL.
  29. "Voucher Program Quietly Enrolls Disabled Students," Tallahassee Democrat, February 5, 2001.
  30. Student Achievement Guarantee in Education Program, State Department of Public Instruction program description ; SAGE Program Guidelines- 1998-99, p. 1: Guidelines initially set Milwaukee eligibility at 10 schools even though DPI's data demonstrated that many more schools would have qualified for aid (SAGE Program Expansion, MPS Eligibity, Department of Public Instruction).
  31. "SAGE Schools in 1998-99," from Milwaukee Public Schools, Office of Gov. Relations, 1999.
  32. 1999-2000 Results of The Student Achievement Guarantee In Education (SAGE) Program Evaluation. Center for Education Research, Analysis and Innovation, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Executive Summary, December 2000.
  33. Correspondence with Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, SAGE administrator, June 2001. back to text
    2001-03 Wisconsin State Budget Summary of Governor's Budget Recommendations, Legislative Fiscal Bureau, March, 2001, p.p. 537, 544. Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Memo from Janice Zmrazek, SAGE Program Coordinator to SAGE School Principals and District Administrators. RE: SAGE Budget Update and Notice of Aid Transmittal, March 1, 2001. Increases in funding are calculated with respect to expanding the program to include the approximately 400 new schools that joined SAGE in 2000-01 in K-3 class size reduction. This increase is added to the base funding for the program of $58.7 million. For a fuller discussion of the Governor's proposed budget on SAGE, see Punishing Success: The Governor's Proposed Education Budget and the SAGE and Voucher Program, People For the American Way Foundation, April 2001.
  34. Steven Walters, "Budget deal expected to retain stem cell work, school choice program," Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, July 25, 2001; "State budget highlights," Wisconsin Education Association Council website, available at the WEAC Web site (accessed July 27, 2001).
  35. "The Cleveland Voucher Program: Who Chooses? Who Gets Chosen? Who Pays?" A Report by the American Federation of Teachers, 1997, pp. ii, 28.
    Ohio Stat. §3317.029.
  36. "A Voucher Plan Full of Holes," St. Petersburg Times, March 28, 1999.
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