Two Roads to Reform: Comparing the Research on Vouchers And Class-Size Reduction

Endnotes and Acknowledgements

Endnotes

1 Lynn Olson and Debra Viadero, "Law Mandates Scientific Base for Research," Education Week, January 30, 2002; accessed April 2002. .

2 ibid.

3 Alan B. Krueger and Diane M. Whitmore, "Would Smaller Classes Help Close the Black-White Achievement Gap?" Working Paper #451, Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section, March 2001; accessed May 2002.

4 Cheryl Wetzstein, "Scores of Blacks Rise With Vouchers," The Washington Times, May 9, 2002.

5 William G. Howell, Paul E. Peterson et al, The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools, (Brookings Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 166.

6 Daniel P. Mayer, Paul E. Peterson, David E. Myers, Christina Clark Tuttle and William G. Howell, "School Choice in New York City After Three Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program," Final Report, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., February 19, 2002.

7 ibid.

8 Alex Molnar and Charles Achilles, "Voucher and Class-Size Research," Education Week, October 25, 2000, p. 64.

9 ibid.

10 Mary Ann Zehr, "Effect of Vouchers on Achievement Unclear, GAO Says," Education Week, October 10, 2001

11 Kim Metcalf, "Evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship Program, 1998-2000: Technical Report." Bloomington IN: Indiana Center for Evaluation, Indiana University, September 2001.

12 "Ohio Takes a National Lead in Choice Study," Ohio Department of Education, September 4, 2001

13 People for the American Way Foundation, "Punishing Success: The Governor's Proposed Education Budget in Wisconsin and the SAGE and Voucher Programs," April 2001, p.3.

14 John Witte, et al., "Fourth Year Report: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 1994, p. 2.

15 John Witte, "Fifth Year Report: The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Madison, WI: Robert M. La Follette Institute of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995, p. 2.

16 Jay Greene, Paul Peterson, and Jiangtao Du, "The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the Program's Evaluation," Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1996, p. 3.

17 Henry M. Levin , "Educational Vouchers: Effectiveness, Choice and Costs," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 17, no. 3, 373-392, p. 377; Correspondence to the office of U.S. Senator Edward Kennedy on Greene, Peterson and Du's analysis from Peter Cookson, Jr., Ph.D., Director, Center for Educational Outreach and Innovation, Teachers College, Columbia University, August 23, 1996.

18 Correspondence from Peter Cookson, Jr.; John Witte, "Reply to Greene, Peterson and Du: The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee: A secondary analysis of data from the program's evaluation," August 23, 1996.

19 Witte reply, August 23, 1996; Bob Davis, "Class Warfare: Dueling Professors Have Milwaukee Dazed Over School Vouchers," The Wall Street Journal, October 11, 1996, pp. 1ff.

20 ibid.

21 Letter of Transmittal for An Evaluation: Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, Janice Mueller, State Auditor to Senator Gary R. George and Representative Carol Kelso, Co-Chairpersons, Joint Legislative Audit Committee, February 2, 2000.

22 Cecilia Rouse, "Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 113, no. 2, May 1998, pp. 553-602.

23 Center on Education Policy, "School Vouchers: What We Know and Don't Know - And How We Could Learn More"

24 Cecilia Rouse, "Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 113, no. 2, May 1998, pp. 553-602.

25 Gregory Camilli and Katrina Bulkley, "Critique of 'An Evaluation of the Florida A--Plus Accountability and School Choice Program,' " Education Policy Analysis Archives, v. 9, no. 7, March 4, 2001, accessed March 9, 2001 ; Haggai Kupermintz, "The Effects of Vouchers on School Improvement: Another Look at the Florida Data," Education Policy Analysis Archives, v. 9, no. 8, March 19, 2001, accessed March 22, 2001.

26 Martin Carnoy, "Do School Vouchers Improve Student Performance?," Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute, 2001.

27 "False Claims about the Threat of Vouchers and School Improvement in Florida," People for the American Way Foundation, April 2001.

28 Data is from a study by the Council of Great City Schools, as reported by Robert C. Johnston, "Test Scores Up in Urban Districts, Report Says," Education Week, May 30, 2001.

29 Jay P. Greene, "The Texas School Miracle Is for Real," City Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, Summer 2000.

30 Helen F. Ladd, Market-Based Reforms in Urban Education, Economic Policy Institute, 2002

31 Mosteller quote is from "Research on the Academic Effects of Small Class Size," Class Size and Students At Risk: What is Known?...What is Next? U.S. Department of Education, April 1998; accessed May 2002.

32 In all, the test scores of about 11,600 students were monitored in project STAR. For more details, see: Alex Molnar and Charles Achilles, "Voucher and Class-Size Research," Education Week, October 25, 2000, p. 64.

33 Debra Viadero, "Tennessee Class-size Study Finds Long-term Benefits," Education Week, May 5, 1999; "Benefits of Small Classes Pay Off at Graduation," Project STAR News, Lebanon, TN: Health and Education Research Operative Services (HEROS), Inc., April 1999.

34 This is based on a report by Princeton professor Alan Krueger and Princeton researcher Diane Whitmore. The report's findings are summarized in "Class Size Makes a Difference," Princeton Weekly Bulletin, May 21, 2001, Vol. 90, No. 28.

35 Quote by Finn is taken from: "Class-Size Reduction," Web site of the National PTA, accessed May 2002.

36 "SAGE Facts," Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2001; accessed April 2002. (Note: Schools that elect to participate in SAGE must reduce class sizes for all students throughout the grade, not simply in those classes with low-income students since to do otherwise would result in economic segregation of students. Thus, SAGE has a multiplier effect.)

37 Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1998-99 Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program Evaluation," Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 1999; Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1999-2000 Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program," Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 2000.

38 "Burmaster: SAGE Bridges Achievement Gap," Education Forum, a publication of the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, Jan. 25-Feb. 1, 2002, Vol. 5, No. 20.

39 David Grissmer, Ann Flanagan, Jennifer Kawata and Stephanie Williamson, Improving Student Achievement: What State NAEP Test Scores Tell Us, (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000), p.xxv.

40 Cecilia Rouse, "Schools and Student Achievement: More Evidence from the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, vol. 4, no. 1, March 1998, pp. 61-78. (Pupil-teacher ratios averaged 17.0:1 in the P-5 public schools and 15.3:1 in the voucher schools.)

41 Alan B. Krueger and Diane M. Whitmore, "Would Smaller Classes Help Close the Black-White Achievement Gap?" Working Paper #451, Princeton University, Industrial Relations Section, March 2001; accessed May 2002.

42 Daniel P. Mayer, Paul E. Peterson, David E. Myers, Christina Clark Tuttle and William G. Howell, "School Choice in New York City After Three Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program," Final Report, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., February 19, 2002.

Acknowledgments:

Arohi Pathak, Research Assistant
Dwight Holmes, Education Policy Manager
Elliot Mincberg, Vice President & Director of Education Policy

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