An Urgent Crisis, An Effective, Affordable Remedy

Endnotes


  1. "Education Report Card Shows Florida Failing," Florida Education Association, June 25, 2002.
  2. Oscar Corral, "McBride Campaigns at Crowded School," Miami Herald, Aug. 22, 2002.
  3. Ranking is based on U.S. Census Bureau data reported in A Statistical View of the 50 United States, 2001, Morgan Quitno Press.
  4. Language from proposed Constitutional Amendment 9.
  5. Data from St. Petersburg Times-Miami Herald Poll, March 2002; Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, p. 1.
  6. Lesley Clark, "Public Favors Smaller Classes, Prekindergarten," Miami Herald, March 31, 2002.
  7. Steve Bousquet, "Education Issues Get Support," St. Petersburg Times, March 31, 2002.
  8. Joni James and Lesley Clark, "Florida Adds Funds for Pupils But Drops Tax Holiday," Miami Herald, May 14, 2002.
  9. Adam Smith, "Handful of Area Educators Jump From the GOP," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 9, 2002.
  10. Mike Thomas, "Lawmakers Are Still Gambling With Education," Orlando Sentinel, April 28, 2002.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Based on totals from "Florida's Amendment to Reduce Class Size," Florida Department of State, Division of Elections.
  13. Adam Smith, "Handful of Area Educators Jump From the GOP," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 9, 2002.
  14. Joni James, "Florida Sinks in Educational Standings," Miami Herald, April 9, 2002.
  15. Ranking is based on U.S. Census Bureau data reported in A Statistical View of the 50 United States, 2001, Morgan Quitno Press. Comparable data from the U.S. Department of Education, reported by the Florida Education Association, ranks Florida 50th in graduation rate.
  16. ibid.
  17. Ranking is based on U.S. Census Bureau data reported in A Statistical View of the 50 United States, 2001, Morgan Quitno Press.
  18. "Education Report Card Shows Florida Failing," Florida Education Association, June 25, 2002. (Note: Figures are in inflation-adjusted dollars. FEA calculated the inflation-adjustments using the federal Consumer Price Index's inflation calculator, and other dollar figures were drawn from the U.S. Department of Education.)
  19. "Education Report Card Shows Florida Failing," Florida Education Association, June 25, 2002; Florida Department of Education, 2000-2001 Final Unweighted FTE, Florida Department of Education.
  20. Fred Grimm, "E is for Education, F is for Florida," The Miami Herald, May 5, 2002.
  21. Courtney Cairns Pastor and James Roland, "Public School Students See Crowded Classes Ahead," Miami Herald, Feb. 24, 2002.
  22. Oscar Corral, "McBride Campaigns at Crowded School," Miami Herald, Aug. 22, 2002.
  23. Letitia Stein, "Schools race to find space, " Orlando Sentinel, August 11, 2002.
  24. Gillian Cohen, Christine Miller, Robert Stonehill, Claire Geddes, The Class-Size Reduction Program: Boosting Student Achievement in Schools Across the Nation, A First-Year Report, U.S. Department of Education, September 2000.
  25. April D. Penton, "Class Size: We All Pay for Overcrowding," Tallahassee Democrat, letter to the editor, July 17, 2002.
  26. Zenaida A. Gonzalez, "Criteria to Judge Schools Confuse Parents, Experts," Florida Today, May 19, 2002.
  27. Kellie Patrick, "What Do Students Want? Small Classes, Lunch at Lunchtime and Math in the Morning," South Florida Sun-Sentinel,, Aug. 21, 2002.
  28. Lori Horvitz, "Schools Make Few Gains; Orange, Osceola Students Trail State Average at Every Grade Level," Orlando Sentinel, May 16, 2002.
  29. "Class-Size Reduction: Myths and Realities," U.S. Department of Education, Sept. 3, 1999.
  30. Lawrence Mishel, Richard Rothstein, Alan B. Krueger, et al, The Class Size Debate, Economic Policy Institute, p. 2; "Closing the Achievement Gap: Improving Educational Outcomes for African American Children," National Black Caucus of State Legislators, November 2001, p. 8; Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, pp. 1-2.
  31. The studies examined test scores from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and determined that there was a connection between smaller pupil-teacher ratios and higher student achievement. One analysis was conducted by the Educational Testing Service's Harold Wenglinsky in 1998, and the other analysis was led by RAND's David W. Grissmer in 2001. Source: Alan B. Krueger, Eric A. Hanushek and Jennifer King Rice, The Class Size Debate, Economic Policy Institute, 2002, (EPI: Washington, D.C.), pp. 81-82.
  32. "Management and Performance Review of the Howard County Public School System," WLC Enterprises.
  33. Mosteller quote is from "Research on the Academic Effects of Small Class Size," Class Size and Students At Risk: What is Known?...What is Next? U.S. Department of Education, April 1998; accessed May 2002.
  34. Alex Molnar and Charles Achilles, "Voucher and Class-Size Research," Education Week, Oct. 25, 2000.
  35. Debra Viadero, "Tennessee Class-size Study Finds Long-term Benefits," Education Week, May 5, 1999; "Benefits of Small Classes Pay Off at Graduation," Project STAR News, Lebanon, TN: Health and Education Research Operative Services (HEROS), Inc., April 1999.
  36. Helen Pate-Bain, B. DeWayne Fulton, and Jayne Boyd-Zaharias, "Effects of Class-size Reduction in the Early Grades (K-3) on High School Performance: Preliminary Results (1999) from Project STAR, Tennessee's Longitudinal Class-size Study," Lebanon, TN: Health and Education Research Operative Services (HEROS), Inc., April 1999; "Benefits of Small Classes Pay Off at Graduation," Project STAR News, Lebanon, TN: Health and Education Research Operative Services (HEROS), Inc., April 1999.
  37. Alan B. Krueger and Diane M. Whitmore, "Would Smaller Classes Help Close the Black-White Achievement Gap?" Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, January 2001.
  38. Quote by Finn is taken from: "Class-Size Reduction," Web site of the National PTA, accessed May 2002.
  39. "Student Achievement Guarantee in Education Program," Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction.
  40. Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1999-2000 Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program," Milwaukee, WI: Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, December 2000; Alex Molnar, Philip Smith, and John Zahorik, "1998-99 Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee in Education (SAGE) Program Evaluation," Center for Education Research, Analysis, and Innovation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Dec. 1999.
  41. This data, from the Public Policy Institute of California, was reported in: Daniel Weintraub, "Study of Smaller Classes Finds Gains for Poor Kids," Sacramento Bee, June 25, 2002.
  42. Debra Viadero, "Smaller Classes in L.A. Seen Lifting Test Scores, Especially Among Poor," Education Week, April 25, 2001.
  43. "A Comprehensive Review of Class Size Reduction: Nationally and in Florida," The Senate Majority Office, State of Florida, Summer 1998, executive summary, pp. 2-3.
  44. North Carolina and Texas were among the states showing the greatest increase in student test scores on the national Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). In a 2000 report, RAND researchers found that student-teacher ratios played an important role in the NAEP improvements for these and other states. Separate research in Burke County, N.C., also found smaller classes led to higher student performance. Sources are: "Rising Math Scores Suggest Education Reforms Are Working," RAND news release dated July 25, 2000; Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, p. 1.
  45. Ivor Pritchard, Reducing Class Size, What Do We Know, National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum and Assessment, U.S. Department of Education, March 1999.
  46. Donna Garner, "Making the Case for Small Class Size," EducationNews.org, Aug. 8, 2002.
  47. Ivor Pritchard, Reducing Class Size, What Do We Know, National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum and Assessment, U.S. Department of Education, March 1999.
  48. Brigid Schulte, "At the 'Academy,' Breaking Down the Dropout Rate," Washington Post, Aug. 23, 2002.
  49. "School Climate," an explanation of the indicators used by Education Week in "Quality Counts '97"; accessible via "archives".
  50. Table 1 of state-by-state rankings for "School Climate," one indicator in Education Week's "Quality Counts '97"; accessible via "archives".
  51. Linda Jacobson, "Research: Sizing Up Small Classes," Education Week, Feb. 28, 2001.
  52. "Parental Involvement Improves Student Achievement," National Education Association.
  53. Mike Thomas. "Handy's 'Facts' on Class Size Flunk Smell Test," Orlando Sentinel, June 25, 2002.
  54. Anita Kumar, "State Panel Backs Pre-K for 4-year-olds," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 30, 2002.
  55. George A. Clowes, "Accountability: A Way of Life at Nobel," School Reform News, July 2002.
  56. ibid.
  57. Tim Collie, "Charter School: What Does it Say About Jeb Bush?" Orlando Sentinel, Dec. 27, 1997.
  58. Mike Thomas, "For Bush's Real Beliefs, Travel to Kids' School," Orlando Sentinel, July 19, 2002.
  59. Based on data from an Aug. 14, 2002 letter from Florida Education Secretary Jim Horne to State Sen. Kendrick Meek. According to Horne: "The Legislature has estimated the 10-year need for teachers to be approximately 160,000, without the approximately 32,000 additional teachers needed" under Amendment 9.
  60. Alan B. Krueger, "Smaller Classes Help Many," USA Today, August 2, 2002, p. 8A.
  61. The Class-Size Reduction Program: Boosting Student Achievement in Schools Across the Nation," A First-Year Report, U.S. Department of Education, September 2000, p. 3.
  62. ibid, p. 7.
  63. Based on data from a March 2000 survey mailed to a list of 10,919 Floridians holding teaching certificates who were not working in a public school district. The survey was conducted by the Florida Office of Economic and Demographic Research.
  64. "Florida On the Line, " August 14, 2002. Accessible via "program archives".
  65. Based on data from an Aug. 14, 2002 letter from Florida Education Secretary Jim Horne to State Sen. Kendrick Meek. According to Horne: "The Legislature has estimated the 10-year need for teachers to be approximately 160,000, without the approximately 32,000 additional teachers needed" under Amendment 9.
  66. Courtney Cairns Pastor and James Roland, "Public School Students See Crowded Classes Ahead," Miami Herald, Feb. 24, 2002.
  67. Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, p. 1.
  68. ibid, p. 2.
  69. "A Comprehensive Review of Class Size Reduction: Nationally and in Florida," The Senate Majority Office, State of Florida, Summer 1998, executive summary, pp. 2-3.
  70. Mary Anne Hess, "A Positive Environment, and Lower Class Sizes, Can Help Reduce Bullying," posted June 3, 1999 on the Web site of the Wisconsin Education Association Council.
  71. Ellen Galinsky and Kimberlee Salmond, "Youth and Violence: Students Speak Out for a More Civil Society," The Colorado Trust and Families and Work Institute, July 30, 2002.
  72. "STAR and SAGE Prove That Small Classes Yield Big Benefits," column by Bob Chase, president of the National Education Association, May 23, 1999.
  73. "School Climate," an explanation of the indicators used by Education Week in "Quality Counts '97." Accessible via "archives".
  74. "District Leaders Support the Establishment and Maintenance of Small Classes," Section 2.3.3., Research You Can Use to Improve Results, 2001, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
  75. Alan B. Krueger, "Smaller Classes Help Many," USA Today, August 2, 2002, p. 8A.
  76. David W. Grissmer, Ann Flanagan, Jennifer Kawata, and Stephanie Williamson, "Improving Student Achievement: What State NAEP Test Scores Tell Us," RAND report, July 2000, summary, p. xxvii.
  77. "Class-Size Reduction: Myths and Realities," U.S. Department of Education, Sept. 3, 1999.
  78. Text from Senate amendment to the state education code (SB 2-D) on maximum class sizes, submitted and approved on April 3, 2002. Sponsors included Senators Holzendorf, Klein, Meek and Wasserman Schultz.
  79. Data from: "Reforming Florida's Tax System: Building the Foundation for Florida's Future," a document released by the Senate President's office, January 2002.
  80. Lloyd Dunkelberger, "McKay Says He'll Push Sales Tax Reform in 2002," Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Dec. 7, 2001.
  81. John Kennedy and Bob Mahlburg, "Chiles Allies Rally for Tax Amendment," Orlando Sentinel, Aug. 18, 2002, p. B5.
  82. Memorandum to state Sen. Campbell from Ed Montanaro, director of the Office of Economic and Demographic Research, May 1, 2002.
  83. ibid.
  84. This Act was passed to implement a constitutional amendment approved by voters on Nov. 4, 1986. See "Education: Truth in Lottery."
  85. Bill Cotterell, "Graham Wants Boost for Education," Tallahassee Democrat, May 1, 2002.
  86. Alan B. Krueger, Eric A. Hanushek and Jennifer King Rice, The Class Size Debate, Economic Policy Institute, 2002, (EPI: Washington, D.C.), p. 30.
  87. "Juvenile Justice Frequently Asked Questions," Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, accessed on Aug. 28, 2002.
  88. "Juvenile Justice Reorganized Around Core Functions to Enhance Efficiency, Accountability and Leadership," Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, accessed on Aug. 28, 2002.
  89. "Key Juvenile Crime Trends and Conditions," Florida Department of Juvenile Justice, accessed on Aug. 28, 2002.
  90. 1997 fundraising letter mailed by Jeb Bush for Governor.
  91. David Twiddy, "Senate Has Questions About Education Study," Tallahassee Democrat, Jan. 31, 2002.
  92. Peter Wallsten, "GOP plotting strategy to kill class-size proposal," Miami Herald, Aug. 11, 2002.
  93. Steve Bousquet, "Bush Runs a Risk Opposing the Class-Size Amendment," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 17, 2002.
  94. Anita Kumar, "Democrats Decry Timing of Bush Proposal," St. Petersburg Times, May 1, 2002.
  95. "Florida's Revenue Estimating Process," Accessed on Aug. 28, 2002.
  96. Letter from members of the Revenue Estimating Conference to Secretary of State Katherine Harris, June 28, 2002, accessed on Aug. 28, 2002.
  97. Jim Saunders, "Judge Says No to Price Tag on Ballot," Florida Times-Union, July 16, 2002.
  98. Stephen Hegarty, "Cost Estimate Method Irks Amendment Backers," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 27, 2002.
  99. From notes taken at REC hearing, June 27, 2002.
  100. Stephen Hegarty, "Cost Estimate Method Irks Amendment Backers," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 27, 2002.
  101. Joe Humphrey, "Class Size: Is It Worth the Cost?" Florida Times-Union, Oct. 10, 2001.
  102. Anita Kumar, "Class Size Issue Closer to Ballot," St. Petersburg Times, April 26, 2002.
  103. David Twiddy, "State Puts Price Tags on New Amendments," Tallahassee Democrat, June 25, 2002.
  104. "Stephen Hegarty, "Cost Estimate Method Irks Amendment Backers," St. Petersburg Times, Aug. 27, 2002.
  105. "Florida's Revenue Estimating Process".
  106. "Price of Small Classes: A Political Calculation," Palm Beach Post, editorial, July 3, 2002.
  107. "Legislature's Top Economist resigns," The Daytona Beach News-Journal, July 25, 2002.
  108. David Twiddy, "Legislative Economist Resigning in August," Tallahassee Democrat, July 25, 2002.
  109. Bill Kaczor, "Florida Losing Teachers Because of Pay, No Raises in Sight," Associated Press, Feb. 23, 2002.
  110. The Class-Size Reduction Program: Boosting Student Achievement in Schools Across the Nation," A First-Year Report, U.S. Department of Education, September 2000, p. 3.
  111. Based on data from a March 2000 survey mailed to a list of 10,919 Floridians holding teaching certificates who were not working in a public school district. The survey was conducted by the Florida Office of Economic and Demographic Research.
  112. Linda Jacobson, "Research: Sizing Up Small Classes," Education Week, Feb. 28, 2001.
  113. Robert C. Johnston, "Class-Size Cuts in Calif. Bring Growing Pains," Education Week, April 30, 1997.
  114. Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, pp. 2-3.
  115. Ibid.
  116. Charles L. Thompson and Elizabeth K. Cunningham, "First in America Special Report: The Lessons of Class Size Reduction," North Carolina Education Research Council, October 2001, pp. 2-3.
  117. Mike Thomas, "Handy's 'Facts' on Class Size Flunk Smell Test," Orlando Sentinel, June 25, 2002.
  118. Mike Thomas, "Class-Size Report Needed More Brains, Less Bush," Orlando Sentinel, Aug. 29, 2002.
  119. From the text of Article IX, Section 1, of the Florida Constitution. This language was added by an amendment that received voter approval in 1998.
  120. Michael Peltier, "Class Size Reduction Proposal to Hit the Ballot," Naples Daily News, Aug. 2, 2002.
  121. Quote by William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925).
  122. Caroline Hendrie, "Enrollment Crunch Stretches the Bounds of the Possible," Education Week, Sept. 11, 1996, accessed via "archives".
  123. Quote by Frederick Douglass (1817-1895).
  124. "Class Size Reduction Constitutional Amendment," a white paper by the Florida Association of District School Superintendents, August 2002.
  125. "A Comprehensive Review of Class Size Reduction: nationally and in Florida," Florida Senate Majority Report, Executive Summary, Summer 1998, p. 7.
  126. Linda Kleindienst, "Florida Republicans Propose Expanding Voucher Plan to Ease School Crowding," Sun-Sentinel, Feb. 9, 2001.
  127. "Florida Senate Passes Amendment to Reduce Class Size," a news release from the Florida Senate, April 3, 2002.
  128. 1997 fundraising letter mailed by Jeb Bush for Governor.
  129. "NGA Says Stimulus Bill Will Cost States Billions," National Governors Association news release, 2002.
  130. Memorandum to state Sen. Campbell from Ed Montanaro, director of the Office of Economic and Demographic Research, May 1, 2002.
  131. ibid.
  132. Rankings are based on U.S. Census Bureau data reported in A Statistical View of the 50 United States, 2001, Morgan Quitno Press.
  133. Associated Press, "Poll Backs Schools, Decries Taxes," Tallahassee Democrat, July 6, 2002.
  134. Victoria Langley, "Class Size Initiative Has Enough Signatures," Capitol News Service, Tallahassee, Fla., posted July 31, 2002.
  135. April D. Penton, "Class Size: We All Pay for Overcrowding," Tallahassee Democrat, letter to the editor, July 17, 2002.

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